Objectives: This study aimed to establish the pharmacognostic profile of aerial parts of Euphorbia tirucalli (ET) as per World Health Organization guidelines for ensuring the quality and identification of adulteration. Materials and Methods: Standardization parameters such as macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of the study plant were evaluated. Hydroalcoholic and ethyl acetate extracts were prepared and subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening. Further, the extracts were used to analyze total phenol and flavonoid contents, and their antioxidant activities were estimated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and nitric oxide assay. Results: Shape, size, color, odor, surface characteristics, and microscopic images exhibited useful diagnostic characteristics of aerial parts of plants. Total ash, water-soluble, and acid-insoluble ash were found to be 16.65' ± 1.050', 5.623' ± 1.11', and 2.56' ± 0.706, respectively. The loss on drying was 9.6', and water and alcoholic extractive values were 4.0' and 26', respectively. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, steroidal triterpenoids, phenols, and flavonoids. Total flavanoid and phenol content in hydroalcoholic and ethyl acetate extracts of ET was found to be 246 mg rut/g, 120 mg rut/g, 81.36 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g, and 279.58 mg GAE/g respectively. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and nitric oxide scavenging assay revealed the IC50 values of hydroalcoholic and ethyl acetate extracts as 69.599 μg/ml, 20.454 μg/ml, 17.017 μg/ml, and 17.562, respectively. Conclusion: The findings obtained from the present study help to authenticate and establish the pharmacopeia standards for the ET plant.