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   Table of Contents - Current issue
January-March 2017
Volume 9 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-119

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Antihyperglycemic activity of the leaves from Annona cherimola miller and rutin on alloxan-induced diabetic rats p. 1
Fernando Calzada, Jesús Iván Solares-Pascasio, RM Ordoñez-Razo, Claudia Velazquez, Elizabeth Barbosa, Normand García-Hernández, David Mendez-Luna, José Correa-Basurto
Background: Annona cherimola, known as “chirimoya” has been reported in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes. Objective: The aims of the present study were to validate and assess the traditional use of A. cherimola as an antidiabetic agent. Materials and Methods: The ethanol extract from A. cherimola (300 mg/kg, EEAc), subsequent fractions (100 mg/kg), and rutin (30 mg/kg) were studied on alloxan-induced type 2 diabetic (AITD) and normoglycemic rats. In addition, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and oral sucrose tolerance test (OSTT) were performed in normoglycemic rats. Molecular docking technique was used to conduct the computational study. Results: Bioassay-guided fractionation of EEAc afforded as major antihyperglycemic compound, rutin. EEAc attenuated postprandial hyperglycemia in acute test using AITD rats (331.5 mg/dL) carrying the glycemic levels to 149.2 mg/dL. Rutin after 2 h, attenuated postprandial hyperglycemia in an acute assay using AITD rats such as EEAc, with maximum effect (150.0 mg/dL) being seen at 4 h. The antihyperglycemic activities of EEAc and rutin were comparable with acarbose (151.3 mg/dL). In the subchronic assay on AITD rats, the EEAc and rutin showed a reduction of the blood glucose levels since the 1st week of treatment, reaching levels similar to normoglycemic state (116.9 mg/kg) that stayed constant for the rest of the assay. OGTT and OSTT showed that EEAc and rutin significantly lowered blood glucose levels in normoglycemic rats at 2 h after a glucose or sucrose load such as acarbose. Computational molecular docking showed that rutin interacted with four amino acids residues in the enzyme α-glucosidase. Conclusion: The results suggest that rutin an α-glucosidase inhibitor was responsible in part of the antihyperglycemic activity of A. cherimola. Its in vivo antihyperglycemic activity is in good agreement with the traditional use of A. cherimola for the treatment of diabetes.
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Methanol extract of Adansonia digitata leaf protects against sodium arsenite-induced toxicities in male wistar rats p. 7
Ayodeji Mathias Adegoke, Michael Adedapo Gbadegesin, Oyeronke Adunni Odunola
Background: Human and animal population exposure to arsenic through the consumption of arsenic contaminated water is rampant in many parts of the world. Protective agents of medicinal plants origin could provide maximum protection against toxicities of various kinds. Objective: The protective role of orally administered methanol extract of the leaves of Adansonia digitata (MELAD) on sodium arsenite (SA) - induced clastogenicity and hepatotoxicity in male Wistar rats was evaluated. Materials and Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats divided into six Groups (1–6) of five animals each were used for the study. Group 1 (negative control) received distilled water and normal diet only, Groups 2–6 received the extract (at 250 or 500 mg/kg body weight) and/or SA at 2.5 mg/kg body weight. Results: There was statistically significant (P < 0.05) increase in the number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes and lipid peroxidation in the SA group as compared with the negative control and treated groups. Administration of the extract reduced the effects of SA on the above parameters. Activities of serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferases did not show statistically significant effects; however, the histological analyses revealed periportal cellular infiltration by mononuclear cells, whereas the MELAD treated groups show mild cellular infiltration and mild portal congestion. Conclusions: MELAD protect against SA-induced toxicities in rats, and it may offer protection in circumstances of co-exposure and cases of arsenicosis.
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The Influence of pluronic F68 and F127 nanocarrier on physicochemical properties, in vitro release, and antiproliferative activity of thymoquinone drug p. 12
Salwa Shaarani, Shahrul Sahul Hamid, Noor Haida Mohd Kaus
Background: This study reports on hydrophobic drug thymoquinone (TQ), an active compound found in the volatile oil of Nigella sativa that exhibits anticancer activities. Nanoformulation of this drug could potentially increase its bioavailability to specific target cells. Objective: The aim of this study was to formulate TQ into polymer micelle, Pluronic F127 (5.0 wt %) and Pluronic F68 (0.1 wt %), as a drug carrier to enhance its solubility and instability in aqueous media. Materials and Methods: Polymeric micelles encapsulated TQ were prepared by the microwave-assisted solvent evaporation technique. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer were utilized for qualitative confirmation of micelles encapsulation. The surface morphology and mean particle size of the prepared micelles were determined by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cytotoxicity effect was studied using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt (MTS) assay. Results: Dynamic laser light scattering (DLS) technique showed hydrodynamic size distribution of optimized micelles of 50 nm, which was in close agreement with the mean particle size obtained from TEM of about 51 nm. Drug release study showed the maximum percentage of TQ release at 61% after 72 h, while the entrapment efficiency of TQ obtained was 46% using PF127. The cytotoxic effect of PF127-encapsulated TQ was considerably higher compared to PF68-encapsulated TQ against MCF7 cells, as they exhibited IC50value of 8 μM and 18 μM, respectively. Conclusion: This study suggests higher molecular weight Pluronic polymer micelles (F127) with hydrophilic-hydrophobic segments which could be used as a suitable candidate for sustainable delivery of TQ. However, comprehensive studies should be carried out to establish the suitability of Pluronic F127 as a carrier for other drugs with similar challenges as TQ.
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Evaluation of cholesterol-lowering activity of standardized extract of Mangifera indica in albino Wistar rats p. 21
GM Gururaja, Deepak Mundkinajeddu, A Senthil Kumar, Shekhar Michael Dethe, J Joshua Allan, Amit Agarwal
Introduction: Cholesterol lowering activity of Mangifera indica L. has been determined by earlier researchers and kernel, leaf and bark have shown significant activity. However, the specific cholesterol lowering activity of leaf methanol extract has not been determined. Materials and Methods: The present study involved evaluation of cholesterol lowering potential of methanol extract of M. indica leaves using high cholesterol diet model in albino Wistar rats. The acute oral toxicity at a dose of 5000 mg/ kg body weight was also determined in female albino Wistar rats. Phytoconstituents Iriflophenone 3-C-β-D-glucoside and mangiferin were quantified in methanol extracts of different varieties of mango leaves using high performance liquid chromatography. Results and Discussion: Significant cholesterol lowering activity was observed with methanol extract of M. indica leaves, at dose of 90 mg/kg body weight in rats and it was also found to be safe at dose of 5000 mg/kg rat body. Iriflophenone 3-C-β-D-glucoside and mangiferin were found to be in the range of 1.2 to 2.8% w/w and 3.9 to 4.6% w/w, respectively which along with 3 β taraxerol and other sterols could be contributing to the cholesterol lowering activity of mango leaves extract. Conclusions: The phytosterols rich extract of Mangifera indica leaves is a good source of nutraceutical ingredient that have the potential to lower serum cholesterol levels.
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Chronic intake of green propolis negatively affecting the rat testis p. 27
Grasiela Dias de Campos Severi-Aguiar, Suellen Josine Pinto, Cristina Capucho, Camila Andrea Oliveira, Maria Aparecida Diamante, Renata Barbieri, Fabrícia Souza Predes, Heidi Dolder
Background: Human and animal evidence suggests that environmental toxicants may have an adverse impact on male reproductive health, reducing the population's reproductive output. Owing to the renewed attraction for natural products, some of them constitute effective alternatives to mitigate these effects. Propolis is a candidate for this use because of its intrinsic properties. In many situations, it improved the testicular damage and alleviated the toxic effects induced by environmental contaminant exposure. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate possible alterations of testicular parameters and certify if its use is really advantageous to the testis, since this could affect rat reproductive function. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups (Co = control, T1 = 3 mg propolis/kg/day, T2 = 6 mg/kg/day, T3 = 10 mg/kg/day) and were exposed during 56 days. The testes were assessed with morphometrical, stereological, and ultrastructural analyses. Cell proliferation and death were diagnosed, respectively, by immunocytochemistry. Connexin 43 (Cx43) and N-cadherin transcript levels were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results: Increased cell proliferation and Leydig cell volume were observed in T2, and in contrast, Cx43 upregulation and cell death were observed in T3. Both T2 and T3 showed ultrastructural abnormalities in testicular parenchyma. Conclusion: We recommend a cautious intake of propolis to avoid deleterious effects.
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Analysis of soluble proteins in natural Cordyceps sinensis from different producing areas by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and two-dimensional electrophoresis p. 34
Chun-Hong Li, Hua-Li Zuo, Qian Zhang, Feng-Qin Wang, Yuan-Jia Hu, Zheng-Ming Qian, Wen-Jia Li, Zhi-Ning Xia, Feng-Qing Yang
Background: As one of the bioactive components in Cordyceps sinensis (CS), proteins were rarely used as index components to study the correlation between the protein components and producing areas of natural CS. Objective: Protein components of 26 natural CS samples produced in Qinghai, Tibet, and Sichuan provinces were analyzed and compared to investigate the relationship among 26 different producing areas. Materials and Methods: Proteins from 26 different producing areas were extracted by Tris-HCl buffer with Triton X-100, and separated using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Results: The SDS-PAGE results indicated that the number of protein bands and optical density curves of proteins in 26 CS samples was a bit different. However, the 2-DE results showed that the numbers and abundance of protein spots in protein profiles of 26 samples were obviously different and showed certain association with producing areas. Conclusions: Based on the expression values of matched protein spots, 26 batches of CS samples can be divided into two main categories (Tibet and Qinghai) by hierarchical cluster analysis.
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Cosmeceutical effects of galactomannan fraction from Arenga pinnata fruits in vitro p. 39
Yanti , Madriena , Soegianto Ali
Background: Cosmeceuticals refer to natural cosmetics with medical-like benefits due to their bioactive contents. Sugar palm fruit (Arenga pinnata) extract has been claimed for its anti-aging effect in vitro. However, its active compounds for cosmeceuticals is still unclear. Objective: This study was aimed to extract galactomannan from A. pinnata fruits and test its efficacy for tyrosinase inhibition, antioxidant, and anti-photoaging activities in vitro. Materials and Methods: Galactomannan from A. pinnata fruits was extracted by freeze drying and identified for its chemical compounds by using pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (py-GC/MS). Galactomannan was tested for its tyrosinase inhibition in both cell-based (melanocytes) and enzymatic assays, antioxidant activity using ferrous ion chelating assay (FCA) assay, and anti-photoaging activity for inhibiting the gene expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and MMP-13 in macrophages using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis. Results: Identification of galactomannan fraction from A. pinnata fruits by py-GC/MS mainly consisted of oxonium ion and glucosides. For cellular assay, galactomannan at 5 μg/mL inhibited >50% of tyrosinase activity in melanocytes induced by phorbol myristate acetate. At the enzymatic level, galactomannan at similar concentration showed less tyrosinase activity inhibition (~20%). FCA results showed that galactomannan at 10 μg/mL exerted >50% of antioxidant activity. The qRT-PCR data indicated that galactomannan at 5 μg/mL inhibited >50% of MMP-1 and MMP-13 gene expressions in ultraviolet B-treated macrophages. Conclusion: Galactomannan fraction from A. pinnata fruits has efficacy for enlightening effect, antioxidant, and anti-photoaging activity in the dose-independent pattern, indicating its cosmeceutical effects for skin healthcare.
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Cytotoxicity studies of the extracts, fractions, and isolated compound of Pseudocedrela kotschyi on cervical cancer (HeLa), breast cancer (MCF-7) and skeletal muscle cancer (RD) Cells p. 46
Taiwo O Elufioye, Abolaji A Abdul, Jone O Moody
Background: This study determined the cytotoxic effects of root and stem bark extracts, fractions, and isolated compounds derived from Pseudocedrela kotschyi on HeLa, MCF-7, and RD cells. Materials and Methods: The cytotoxic activity was determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay against three cell lines (RD, HeLa, and MCF 7) at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 1000 μg/mL. Isolation of crude saponin was done from the most active ethyl acetate fraction and further purified using vacuum liquid chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatographic techniques. Results: The cytotoxicity assay revealed that the methanol extract from the root bark and the ethyl acetate fraction from the stem bark exhibited marked anticancer activity with IC50 of 87.36 μg/ml and 21.53 μg/ml, respectively, on HeLa cancer cell line and 101.51 μg/mL and 38.46 μg/mL, respectively, on RD cell line. These values are comparable with that obtained from vinblastine and methotrexate used as standard drugs (IC50 values of 0.01 μg/mL and 0.05 μg/mL, respectively). The isolated crude saponins also gave IC50 values of 5.28 μg/mL and 81.52 μg/mL against the RD cell lines and IC50values of 1.05 μg/mL and 86.8 μg/mL for the MCF 7 cancer cell lines. PTLC led to the isolation of a compound from the crude saponin which was identified as 7-deacetoxy-7-oxogedunin through spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data. Conclusions: P. kotschyi could be considered as a potential source of chemotherapeutic agent. However, further research to determine the exact mechanism of action needs to be carried out.
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Insulin Plant (Costus pictus) extract restores thyroid hormone levels in experimental hypothyroidism Highly accessed article p. 51
S Ashwini, Zachariah Bobby, MG Sridhar, CC Cleetus
Background: The aim of the present study was to investigate the preventive effect of Costus pictus leaf extract in experimental hypothyroidism. Materials and Methods: Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups with ten rats in each group: Control (C), hypothyroid (H), control+extract (C+E), and hypothyroid+extract (H+E). Rats in C group did not receive any intervention throughout the experimental period. The rats in the C+E and H+E groups received pretreatment with C. pictus leaf extract for 4 weeks. Subsequently, for the next 6 weeks, rats in the H group received 0.05% propylthiouracil in drinking water while C+E group received C. pictus leaf extract and H+E group received propyl thiouracil and C. pictus leaf extract. Results: Hypothyroid group rats exhibited dramatic increase in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels with concomitant depletion in the levels of thyroid hormones. Treatment with the extract resulted in remarkable improvement in thyroid profile. Extract produced 10.59-fold increase in plasma free T3, 8.65-fold increase in free T4, and 3.59-fold decrease in TSH levels in H+E group in comparison with H group. Treatment with the extract ameliorated hypercholesterolemia, decreased levels of plasma C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor alpha, suppressed tissue oxidative stress and prevented hepatic and renal damage caused due to thyroid hormone depletion in the H+E group. Pentacyclic triterpenes alpha and beta amyrins were identified and quantified in the extract. Conclusions: This is the first study to reveal that C. pictus extract has therapeutic potential to restore thyroid hormone levels and prevent the biochemical complications due to thyroid hormone insufficiency in the animal model of experimental hypothyroidism.
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Pharmacognostic specifications and lawsone content of Lawsonia inermis leaves p. 60
Rawiwan Charoensup, Thidarat Duangyod, Chanida Palanuvej, Nijsiri Ruangrungsi
Background: Lawsonia inermis L. has been used as a traditional or folk medicine for the treatment of a wide range of skin infectious diseases. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacognostic specifications and lawsone contents of L. inermis leaves. Materials and Methods: The pharmacognostic specifications of L. inermis leaves from 12 sources were evaluated according to the WHO guideline of quality control method for medicinal plant materials. The lawsone contents were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) coupled with densitometry and image analysis. Results: Microscopic evaluation of L. inermis powders showed the fragment of mesophyll, fragment of parenchyma, epidermis layer with stomata, and the rosette crystal of calcium oxalate. Physicochemical parameters revealed that total ash, acid-insoluble ash, loss on drying, and water content should be not <6.98, 1.12, 8.08, and 9.86% of dried weight, respectively, whereas ethanol and water extractive values should be not < 19.67 and 23.06% of dried weight, respectively. The content of lawsone in L. inermis leaves by TLC-densitometry was found to be 0.76 ± 0.05 g/100 g of dried crude drug, whereas the lawsone content evaluation by TLC image analysis was found to be 0.87 ± 0.11 g/100 g of dried crude drug. The validation of the methods revealed that both TLC-densitometry and TLC image analysis showed a good sensitivity and accuracy for lawsone quantitation in L. inermis. Conclusion: The pharmacognostic specifications could be used as the standardization data of L. inermis leaves, and the development of TLC method could be applied to determine lawsone content in this plant material.
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New cytotoxic cembranoid from indonesian soft coral Sarcophyton sp. p. 65
Hedi Indra Januar, Neviaty Putri Zamani, Dedi Soedharma, Ekowati Chasanah
Context: Sarcophyton is a soft coral species that contains various secondary metabolites with cytotoxic activity. The production of cytotoxic compounds in soft corals is suggested as their allelochemical to win space competition. Therefore, if a particular soft coral species dominates a reef area, it may suggest to contain interesting bioactive compounds. Aims: This research aimed to characterize the cytotoxic compounds in dominant soft coral species (Sarcophyton sp.) on the reef at the Western side of Mahengetang Island, Indonesia. Subjects and Methods: Isolation of cytotoxic compounds through ethanol extracts had been done with preparative high-performance liquid chromatography and bioassay-guided fractionation by MCF-7 (breast) cancer cell lines. The structures of each cytotoxic compounds were elucidated on the basis of mass and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic studies. Results: Elucidation through all compounds found a new cembranoid, namely, 2-hydroxy-crassocolide E (1), alongside with 5 known cembranoids; sarcophytoxide (2), sarcrassin E (3), 3,7,11-cembreriene-2,15-diol (4), 11,12-epoxy-Sarcophytol A (5), and sarcophytol A (6). All of these cembranoids were showed to inhibit the growth of MCF-7 (breast) cancer, with 50% inhibition of tumor cell lines growth lower than 30 mg/L. Conclusions: Results of this study suggest that a soft coral species which dominate a reef area is a potential source for various bioactive compounds.
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Short-term effects of date palm extract (Phoenix dactylifera) on ischemia/reperfusion injury induced by testicular torsion/detorsion in rats p. 69
Alireza Raayat Jahromi, Rokhsana Rasooli, Younes Kamali, Nasrollah Ahmadi, Ehsan Sattari
Background: Antioxidants are potent scavengers of free radicals and have beneficial effects on human health. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential protective antioxidant activity of the edible portion of date fruit extract in an experimental testicular torsion/detorsion (T/D) model in rats. Materials and Methods: To investigate the potential protective effects of date palm (DP), 30 male Spraque-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: sham-operated, T/D, and T/D + DP-treated (500 mg/kg, PO) groups. Testicular ischemia was induced via keeping the left testis under 720° clockwise torsion for 2 h (h), afterward, detorsion was performed. All rats were sacrificed 4 h after detorsion. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, total oxidative status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS), oxidative stress index (OSI), and histopathological damage score were evaluated. Results: Serum MDA, TOS, and OSI levels rose significantly in the T/D group. These values were lower in the T/D + DP group. TAS values decreased significantly in T/D group and rose in T/D + DP group. Severe injury was seen in the twisted testes of T/D group. In contrast, ipsilateral-twisted testicular tissue in the DP-treated group showed moderate-to-mild changes. Contralateral testicular tissue in the T/D group had a mild-to-moderate tissue injury; meanwhile, treated group revealed normal-to-mild changes. Spermatogenesis was significantly improved in DP-treated group when compared with the T/D group. Conclusion: The findings suggest a possible protective effect of DP against testicular oxidative damage induced by T/D; however, more detailed studies are warranted.
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Growth inhibition and morphological alteration of Fusarium sporotrichioides by Mentha piperita essential oil p. 74
P Rachitha, K Krupashree, GV Jayashree, Natarajan Gopalan, Farhath Khanum
Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the phytochemical composition, antifungal activity of Mentha piperita essential oil (MPE) against Fusarium sporotrichioides. Methods: The phytochemical composition was conducted by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC MS) analysis and mycelia growth inhibition was determined by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC), the morphological characterization was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Finally, the membrane permeability was determined by the release of extracellular constituents, pH, and total lipid content. Result: In GC MS analysis, 22 metabolites were identified such as menthol, l menthone, pulegone, piperitone, caryophyllene, menthol acetate, etc. The antifungal activity against targeted pathogen, with MIC and MFC 500 μg/mL and 1000 μg/mL, respectively. The MPE altered the morphology of F. sporotrichoides hyphae with the loss of cytoplasm content and contorted the mycelia. The increasing concentration of MPE showed increase in membrane permeability of F. sporotrichoides as evidenced by the release of extracellular constituents and pH with the disruption of cell membrane indicating decrease in lipid content of F. sporotrichoides. Conclusion: The observed results showed that MPE exhibited promising new antifungal agent against Fusarium sporotrichioides.
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Antidiabetic effects of aqueous and dichloromethane/methanol stem bark extracts of Pterocarpus soyauxii Taub (Papilionaceae) on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats p. 80
Marie Claire Tchamadeu, Paul Désiré Djomeni Dzeufiet, Nelly Blaes, Jean-Pierre Girolami, Pierre Kamtchouing, Théophile Dimo
Aim of the Study: The aim is to evaluate the hypoglycemic and antidiabetic effects of aqueous and CH2Cl2/CH3OH stem bark extracts of Pterocarpus soyauxii Taub in normal and diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic and normal adult Wistar rats were orally administered with aqueous and CH2Cl2/CH3OH plant extracts of P. soyauxii at various doses (38–300 mg/kg) in a single administration. In addition, STZ-induced diabetic rats received prolonged daily administration for 14 days. Glibenclamide (GB) (10 mg/kg) was used as reference treatment. In acute test, fasting blood glucose was followed for 5 h. In subacute test, body weight, food and water intakes, and blood glucose were followed weekly and serum biochemical parameters evaluated after 14 days treatment. Results: Acute administration of aqueous and CH2Cl2/CH3OH stem bark extracts moderately decreased fasting blood glucose compared to GB, significantly in normal rats (P < 0.05 to P < 0.01) but, as GB, not significantly in diabetic rats. Prolonged treatments in diabetic rats with aqueous and CH2Cl2/CH3OH extracts reduced blood glucose to an extent, respectively, superior or similar to GB. Moreover, P. soyauxii also significantly (P < 0.01) reduced weight loss, and diabetes increased serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and transaminases (alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase) elevations. Conclusion: P. soyauxii Taub stem bark extracts have possible value for antidiabetic oral medication.
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The hydroalcoholic extract of Matricaria chamomilla suppresses migration and invasion of human breast cancer MDA-MB-468 and MCF-7 cell lines p. 87
Mohsen Nikseresht, Ali Mohammad Kamali, Hamid Reza Rahimi, Hamdollah Delaviz, Mehdi Akbartabar Toori, Iraj Ragerdi Kashani, Reza Mahmoudi
Background: Matricaria chamomilla is an aromatic plant with antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the inhibitory role of M. chamomilla on migration and invasion of human breast cancer cells remains unclear. Objective: This study investigated the methods to evaluate these anticancer mechanisms of M. chamomilla on human breast cancer MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468 cell lines. Materials and Methods: The cells were treated with hydroalcoholic extract of M. chamomilla at different concentrations (50–1300 μg/mL) for 24, 48, and 72 h in a culture medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum. This study quantified the 50% growth inhibition concentrations (IC50) by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay; apoptosis and necrosis through Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide staining; cell proliferation and clone formation by clonogenic assay as well as cellular migration, invasion, and attachment. After 24, 48, and 72 h of treatment, the IC50levels were 992 ± 2.3 μg/mL, 893 ± 5.4 μg/mL, and 785 ± 4.8 μg/mL against MDA-MB-468, respectively, and 1288 ± 5.6 μg/mL, 926 ± 2.5 μg/mL, and 921 ± 3.5 μg/mL, against MCF-7, respectively. Furthermore, increasing the extract concentrations induced cellular apoptosis and necrosis and decreased cellular invasion or migration through 8 μm pores, colonization and attachment in a dose-dependent manner. Results: It indicated time- and dose-dependent anti-invasive and antimigrative or proliferative and antitoxic effects of hydroalcoholic extract of aerial parts of chamomile on breast cancer cells. Conclusion: This study demonstrated an effective plant in preventing or treating breast cancer.
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Antifungal activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Chrysobalanus icaco against oral clinical isolates of Candida Species p. 96
Joćo Paulo Bastos Silva, Ana Regina Maués Noronha Peres, Thiago Portal Paixão, Andressa Santa Brígida Silva, Ana Cristina Baetas, Wagner Luiz Ramos Barbosa, Marta Chagas Monteiro, Marcieni Ataíde Andrade
Background: Chrysobalanus icaco is a medicinal plant commonly used to treat fungal infections in Brazilian Amazonian region. Objective: This work aimed to evaluate the antifungal activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of C. icaco (HECi) against oral clinical isolates of Candida spp. and to determine the pharmacognostic parameters of the herbal drug and the phytochemical characteristics of HECi. Materials and Methods: The pharmacognostic characterization was performed using pharmacopoeial techniques. Phytochemical screening, total flavonoid content, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis were used to investigate the chemical composition of the HECi. A broth microdilution method was used to determine the antifungal activity of the extract against 11 oral clinical isolates of Candida spp. Results: Herbal drug presented parameters which were within the limits set forth in current Brazilian legislation. A high amount of flavonoid content (132,959.33 ± 12,598.23 μg quercetin equivalent/g of extract) was found in HECi. Flavonoids such as myricetin and rutin were detected in the extract by HPLC analyses. HECi showed antifungal activity against oral isolates of Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis (minimum inhibitory concentrations [MIC] 3.12 and 6.25 mg/mL, respectively), and C. albicans American American Type Culture Collection (MIC <1.56 mg/mL). Conclusion: HECi was shown to possess antifungal activity against Candida species with clinical importance in the development of oral candidiasis, and these activities may be related to its chemical composition. The antifungal activity detected for C. icaco against Candida species with clinical importance in the development of oral candidiasis can be attributed to the presence of flavonoids in HECi, characterized by chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques.
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Synergisms in alpha-glucosidase inhibition and antioxidant activity of Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze and Eugenia uniflora L. Ethanolic Extracts p. 101
Juliana Vinholes, Márcia Vizzotto
Background: Camellia sinensis, the most consumed and popular beverages worldwide, and Eugenia uniflora, a Brazilian native species, have been already confirmed to have beneficial effects in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. However, their potential acting together against an enzyme linked to this pathology has never been exploited. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory properties of individual and combined ethanolic extracts of the leaves of C. sinensis and E. uniflora over alpha-glucosidase, a key digestive enzyme used on the Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) control. In addition, their inhibitory activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and peroxyl radicals was also assayed. Materials and Methods: Enzyme inhibition and antioxidant potential were assessed based on in vitro assays. Total phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and chlorophylls A and B were achieved using spectrophotometric methods. Results: E. uniflora was almost 40 times more active on alpha-glucosidase than C. sinensis and combined extracts showed a significant synergistic effect with an obtained IC50 value almost 5 times lower than the theoretical value. C. sinensis extract was twice more active than E. uniflora concerning DPPH, in contrast, E. uniflora was almost 10 times more effective than C. sinensis on inhibition of peroxyl radicals with a significant synergistic effect for combined extracts. The extracts activities may be related with their phytochemicals, mainly phenolic compounds, and chlorophylls. Conclusion: Combined C. sinensis and E. uniflora ethanolic extracts showed synergistic effect against alpha-glucosidase and lipid peroxidation. These herbal combinations can be used to control postprandial hyperglycemia and can also provide antioxidant defenses to patients with T2DM.
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Modulating effect of Hypnea musciformis (red seaweed) on lipid peroxidation, antioxidants and biotransforming enzymes in 7,12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene induced mammary carcinogenesis in experimental animals p. 108
Mohan Balamurugan, Kathiresan Sivakumar, Arokia Vijaya Anand Mariadoss, Kathiresan Suresh
Background: Breast cancer is the second most widespread diagnosed cancer and second leading cause of cancer death in women. Objective: The present work was carried out to evaluate the chemo preventive potential of Hypnea musciformis (ethanol extract) seaweed on oxidative stress markers, bio transforming enzymes, incidence of tumors, and pathological observation in 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) exposed experimental mammary carcinogenesis. Materials and Methods: Female Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups. Rats in the group 1 served as control. Rats in the group 2 and 3 received a single subcutaneous injection of DMBA (25 mg/kg body weight (b.w)) in the mammary gland to develop mammary carcinoma. In addition, group 3 rats were orally administrated with 200 mg/kg between of H. musciformis along with DMBA injection and group 4 rats received ethanolic extract of H. musciformis every day orally (200 mg/kg b.w) throughout the experimental period of 16 weeks. Results: Our results revealed that treatment with H. musciformis ethanolic extract to DMBA treated rats significantly reduced the incidence of tumor and tumor volume as compared to DMBA alone treated rats. Moreover, our results showed imbalance in the activities/levels of lipid peroxidation by products, antioxidant enzymes, and bio transforming phase I and II enzymes in the circulation, liver and mammary tissues of DMBA treated rats which were significantly modulated to near normal on treatment with ethanolic extract of H. musciformis. All these alterations were supported by histochemical findings. Conclusion: The results obtained from this study suggest that chemo preventive potential of H. musciformis ethanol extract is probably due to their free radicals quenching effect and modulating potential of bio transforming enzymes during DMBA exposed experimental mammary carcinogenesis.
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Potential of cannabidiol for the treatment of viral hepatitis p. 116
Henry I. C. Lowe, Ngeh J Toyang, Wayne McLaughlin
Viral hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) pose a major health problem globally and if untreated, both viruses lead to severe liver damage resulting in liver cirrhosis and cancer. While HBV has a vaccine, HCV has none at the moment. The risk of drug resistance, combined with the high cost of current therapies, makes it a necessity for cost-effective therapeutics to be discovered and developed. The recent surge in interest in Medical Cannabis has led to interest in evaluating and validating the therapeutic potentials of Cannabis and its metabolites against various diseases including viruses. Preliminary screening of cannabidiol (CBD) revealed that CBD is active against HCV but not against HBV in vitro. CBD inhibited HCV replication by 86.4% at a single concentration of 10 μM with EC50of 3.163 μM in a dose-response assay. These findings suggest that CBD could be further developed and used therapeutically against HCV.
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Erratum: Bioactivity of diterpens from the ethyl acetate extract of kingiodendron pinnatum rox. hams. p. 119

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